BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

3 & ½ YEARS SPECIAL DIPLOMA IN ELECTRONICS
WITH SPECIALIZATION IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

SCHEME OF INSTRUCTION AND EXAMINATION
FIRST YEAR

 Sub Code Name of the Subject Instructional hours Total Periods/ Year Scheme of Examination T P Duration (HRS) Sessional Marks End Exam Marks Total Marks BM-101 English-I 3 -- 90 3 20 80 100 BM-102 Engineering Mathematics –I 5 -- 150 3 20 80 100 BM-103 Engineering Physics-I 4 -- 120 3 20 80 100 BM-104 Engineering chemistry & Environmental Sciences-1 4 120 3 20 80 100 BM-105 Basic Electrical Engineering 4 -- 120 3 20 80 100 BM-106 Electronic Components & Devices 4 -- 120 3 20 80 100 BM-107 Engineering Drawing –I -- 6 180 3 40 60 100 BM-108 Electronic Components & Devices Lab -- 3 90 3 40 60 100 BM-109 A) Physics Lab Practice B) Chemistry Lab Practice -- 6 180 3 40 60 100 BM-110 Computer Fundamental Lab Practice - 3 90 3 40 60 100 TOTAL 24 18 1260 280 720 1000

BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Subject Title                        :           Basic Electrical Engineering.
Subject Code                      :          BM -105
Periods / week                    :           04
Periods / semester             :           120

TIME SCHEDULE

 S. No Major Topics No. of Periods Weightage of Marks Short type Essay type 1 Basic principles of electricity 15 14.5 11/2 1 2 D.C. Networks 10 13 1 1 3 Magnetism and Electromagnetism 20 16 2 1 4 Electromagnetic Induction 15 13 1 1 5 Heating effects of Electric current 10 13 1 1 6 Electrostatics 15 13 1 1 7 A.C Fundamentals 25 14.5 11/2 1 8 Batteries 10 13 1 1 120 110 10 08

OBJECTIVES:

Up on the completion of the course student shall be able to:

1.0         Comprehend the Basic principles of electricity
1.1       Explain structure of Atom , electronic configuration of elements.
1.2         Define Valence electron; distinguish between Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors with reference to valence electrons.
1.3         Explain the concept of electric Charge, state  SI unit for charge.
1.4         Explain the concept of Potential, Potential Difference and E.M.F Mention their S.I. Units.
1.5         Explain the concept of electric Current and differentiate between conventional electric current and electron current.
1.6         State and explain Ohm’s law.
1.7         Explain the concept of electrical Resistance and Conductance and their S.I. Units
1.8         State parameters affecting the resistance
1.9         Define Specific resistance and state its S.I. Unit.
1.10      Explain Temperature Coefficient of resistance and solve simple problems on variation of resistance with temperature.
1.11      Explain the concepts of Work done, Energy expended and Power dissipated in electric circuit and state  S.I. Units of   Work, Power and Energy
1.12      Solve simple Domestic electricity bill.
1.13      Derive the formula for equivalent resistance when resistances are connected in  series, parallel and series-parallel.
1.14      Solve problems on series, parallel and series-parallel circuits for total current, branch current, power, and p.d. across and in part of the circuit.

2.0     Comprehend the D.C. Networks
2.1     Explain the concept of electrical Network.
2.2     Define the terms
(i) electric Circuit, (ii) Branch, (iii) Node, (iv)Lloop, (v) Active element and  (vi) Passive element.
2.3    State and explain Kirchhoff’s laws.
2.4    Solve problems on D.C. Networks using Kirchhoff’s laws.
2.5    Apply Kirchhoff’s laws to Wheatstone’s bridge Network.
2.6    Explain Star and Delta configurations of resistances.
2.7    Give transformation formulae from Star to Delta & Delta to Star (no derivation).
2.8    Solve simple problems on Star/Delta and Delta/Star transformation.

3.0      Explain the Concept of Magnetism and Electromagnetism
3.1      Explain the Magnetism and magnetic Fields. Sketch field pattern of Bar magnet.
3.2      State  Coulomb’s laws of magnetism.
3.3      Define the terms Absolute and Relative Permeability of medium.
3.4      Explain the concept  of Lines of force & Magnetic Field.
3.5      Define field Intensity, Magnetic potential, Flux , Flux density .
3.6      Explain the concept of Electromagnetic effect
3.7      Draw and explain  the field patterns due to Straight current carrying conductor .
3.8      Explain Work law and its applications.
3.9      State Laplace law (Biot-Savart’s Law).
3.10   Give  expressions for field strength due to long current carrying conductor,
3.11   Develop the expression for magnitude of the force   on a current currying conductor placed  inside a magnetic field.
3.12   State the Fleming’s Left Hand rule.
3.13   Give  the expression for the force between two parallel current carrying conductors
3.14   Develop the concept of Magnetic circuits
3.15   Define Magneto Motive  Force (mmf), Permeability, Flux and Reluctance
3.16   Solve problems on simple magnetic circuits
3.17   Compare Magnetic circuit with Electric circuit
3.18   Explain the terms leakage Flux and  leakage Co-efficient
3.19    Sketch the general shape of magnetization curve for magnetic material.
3.20   Explain Hysteresis loop and Hysteresis loss.
3.21   Explain Eddy current loss.
4.0    Explain the Concept of Electromagnetic Induction:
4.1    Define and explain Faraday’s laws of Electromagnetic Induction ,
4.2    Illustrate the types of induced EMFs and differentiate them.
4.3     Define Lenz’s law.
4.4    Derive the expression for Dynamically induced E.M.F. and solve related problems.
4.5    Explain the terms Self inductance and Mutual inductance and differentiate them.
4.6    Derive expressions for Self and Mutual inductance in terms of physical parameters.
4.7   Define the Co-efficient of coupling for a given circuit.
4.8    Find the Equivalent inductance when inductances are connected in series.
4.9    Derive the formula for energy stored in a magnetic field.

5.0    Appreciate the Heating effects of Electric current
5.1   Explain Heating effects of electric current.
5.2     State and explain Joule’s law.
5.3  Explain the working of electrical appliances like
i. Incandescent bulb
ii. Electric kettle
iii. Electric Iron
iv. Geyser

6.0 Appreciate the concept of Electrostatics:

6.1      State Coulomb’s Laws of Electrostatics
6.2      Define Absolute Permittivity and Relative Permittivity of a medium.
6.3      Solve problems on Inverse Square Laws as applied to electrostatics.
6.4      Explain Electrostatic Induction
6.5      Comprehend electrostatic Field and electrostatic Lines of force.
6.6      List the properties of electrostatic lines of force.
6.7      Define Field strength in terms of force per unit charge
6.8      Define electric Flux, Flux density and derive the relation D=Ñ”oÑ”rE
6.9      State Gauss’S Theorem (proof is not required).
6.10    Explain the charge residing outside the surface of a sphere.
6.11    Solve problems on field strength (or field intensity or electric intensity) and flux density
6.12    Define electric Potential, Potential Difference in electric fields and obtain an expression for potential due to point charge.
6.13    Explain the Di-electric strength and state the importance of Di-electric constant.
6.14    Define Capacitance and give its S.I. Unit.
6.15   Obtain the expressions for capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with Uniform Di-electric medium and with Composite Medium.
616     Derive Equivalent capacitance of series, parallel and series-parallel combinations of capacitors.
6.17   Calculate the Energy stored in a capacitor.
6.18  Solve the problems on calculation of Equivalent capacitance and Energy stored in   a capacitor.

7.0    Comprehend the A.C Fundamentals:

7.1    Define the terms pertaining to alternating quantities (i) Wave form, (ii) Cycle, (iii)Time          period, (iv) Frequency, (v) Amplitude and etc.
7.2    Explain single loop Generator concept.
7.3    State the relation between Poles, Speed and Frequency.
7.4    State the Instantaneous value in terms of Maximum value, Frequency and Time.
7.5    State and calculate the Average value, R.M.S. value, Form factor and Peak factor for sine wave and half-wave rectified sine wave.
7.6    Explain the terms Phase and Phase difference.
7.7    Use ‘J’ Operator to perform Phasor algebra (addition, subtraction, multiplication and  Division)
7.8    Convert Polar quantities to Rectangular quantities and vice versa.
7.9    Explain the concepts of single phase A.C. Circuits.
7.10  Derive relationship between voltage and current, power consumed in pure
Resistive, Inductive and Capacitive circuits with vector diagrams.
7.10  Derive relationship between voltage and current, power consumed and power factor in   R - L, R-C, L-C  and R - L-C   series circuits.
7.11 Simple problems on R-L, R-C , L-C and  R-L-C series  circuits.

8.0    Comprehend the working of Batteries:
8.1     Define storage Batteries.
8.2    Give battery or cell Classification, Differences between Primary and Secondary Cell
8.3     Explain the working of Lead – Acid cell; give the chemical reactions during charging and  discharging.
8.4     Explain the working of Nickel-Iron cell; give the chemical reactions during charging and discharging.
8.5     Explain the working of Nickel-Cadmium cell; give the chemical reactions during charging and discharging.
8.6     Give and explain the different types of charging methods (Constant Voltage, Constant Current and Trickle charging).

COURSE CONTENTS

1.    Basic principles of electricity:
Atomic Structure, Differences between Conductors, Insulators and Semi conductors, Concept of Electric Charge, Concept of Potential, Concept of Electric Current. Ohms law, Concept of Electrical resistance, parameters affecting resistance, Specific resistance,Temperature Co-efficient, Work Power and Energy, Series, parallel and Series-Parallel circuits.

2.    D.C. Networks:
Net work terminology-Network solutions by Kirchhoff’s laws, Wheat stone’s bridge network- its applications Star/Delta transformation- Problems.

3.   Magnetism and Electromagnetism:
Electromagnetic Effect , Magnetic fields, Field patterns, Permeability, Flux, Flux density, Susceptibility, comparison  between Electrostatic and Magnetic lines of force and Eddy current losse. Work law, Biot- savarts’ law, Fleming’s Left Hand rule, MMF, Reluctance, Hysteresis loss.

4.  Electromagnetic Induction:
Faraday’s laws, Lenz’s Law, Dynamically induced EMF, Statically induced EMF, Self and Mutual Inductance, Co-efficient of coupling, Series connection of inductances, Energy stored in magnetic field.

5.  Heating effects of Electric current:
Define Mechanical equivalent of heat. Define Joule’s Law, Latent heat, Specific heat.

6. Electrostatics:
Laws of Electrostatics, Permittivity – Relative and Absolute, electric Fields, Potential and Potential Difference, Gauss’s theorem, Flux, Flux density, Electric Intensity, Di-electric strength, concept of Capacitance, Capacitances in series, parallel and series- parallel combination, Energy stored in a Condenser.
7. A.C Fundamentals:
Single loop Generator concept, Poles, Speed and Frequency, RMS value, Average  value and terms associated with sine wave, j-notation, Polar to Rectangular conversions and vice versa, RL, RC, LC, RLC series circuits
.
8.   Batteries:
Introduction, Battery or Cell classification, Difference between Primary and Secondary Cells, Types of Storage Cells, Lead – Acid cell, Methods of charging, Nickel - Iron cell, Nickel – Cadmium cell  ,Indications of fully charged cell, Introduction to maintenance free batteries.

REFERENCES:

1.  Electrical Technology by H. Cotton
2.  A Text Book of Electrical Technology,  Vol.I – B.L.Theraja & A.K. Theraja
3   Introduction to Basic Elec. Engg. By V.K. Mehta
4.  Basic Electrical Engineering by J.B. Gupta.
5.  Electrical Technology by P.S. Duggal

ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS & DEVICES

Subject Title              :          ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS & DEVICES
Subject Code            :         BM- 106
Periods / week        :          04
Periods /Semester :          120

TIME SCHEDULE

 S.No Major Topic No. of Periods Weightage of Marks No. of Short Qns No. of Essay Qns 1. Electronic  passive Components 12 13 1 1 2 Switches, relays and PCB’s 8 6.5 1/2 1/2 3 Semiconductor Physics 10 8 1 1/2 4 Semiconductor Diodes 15 14.5 11/2 1 5 Rectifiers 15 13 1 1 6 Transistor and its Characteristics 15 14.5 11/2 1 7 Transistor Biasing Circuits 12 13 1 1 8 Field Effect Transistors and  Special Semiconductor Devices 20 14.5 11/2 1 9 Analysis of transistor amplifier 13 13 1 1 120 110 10 8

OBJECTIVES:

On completion of the study of the subject a student should be able to comprehend the following:

1.0   Know different types of Electronic Passive Components.
1.1       Define different types of materials. Give examples for Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators
1.2       Define Active and Passive elements
1.3       Define Resistance and Resistivity of a material
1.4       Classify the types of Resistors: fixed, variable, carbon, metal film and wire wound resistors.
1.5       List the ratings of a Resistor.
1.6       Explain Resistor color coding for Carbon  and Metal Film Resistors.
1.7       Explain the features of above Resistors with respect to Size, Power Rating and Tolerance.
1.8       List the applications of the above Resistors.
1.9       Mention special purpose Resistors LDR, VDR, Thermistor and Sensistor.
1.10    Explain the principle of LDR (Photo Conductivity)
1.12    Explain the construction of LDR.
1.13    Draw and explain the characteristics of LDR.
1.14    List any three applications of LDR like Twilight switch, optical counter
1.15    Draw and explain characteristics of VDR.
1.16    Define capacitor and capacitance.
1.17    Explain charging and discharging of a capacitor.
1.18    List the factors affecting Capacitance and Voltage rating.
1.19    Define dielectric constant and dielectric strength of a capacitor.
1.20    Classify the Capacitors.
1.21    List their applications and ranges.
1.22    Give the color code for Tubular Ceramic capacitor and Disc capacitor.
1.23    Mention the losses in a capacitor
1.24    Define Inductor and Self Inductance, Mutual Inductance.
1.25    Define Transformer.
1.26    Explain the principle of a Transformer.
1.27    Classify the Transformers based on the applications (Power, AF& RF, Iron core & Ferrite)
1.28    List any 3 applications for the above

2.0      Familiarize different types of switches, relays and PCB’s

2.1    Explain the working of a switch.
2.2    Classify Switches according to poles and throws: SPST, SPDT, DPST, DPDT and multi pole multi throw.
2.3    Explain the working of toggle, push button, rotary, slide, keyboard and thumbwheel switches.
2.4   Define relay and classify them.
2.5   Explain the construction and working of Electromagnetic Relay.
2.6   Explain the differences between Conventional circuits and Printed Circuit Boards.
2.7    Classify the PCB’s.
2.8    List various types of laminates used in PCB’s.
2.9   Mention the methods of layout preparation of PCB’s.
2.10 List the steps involved in PCB manufacturing processes.
2.11 State the advantages of PCBs.

3.0       Understand Semiconductor Physics.

3.1.        Describe the atomic structure of Germanium and Silicon semi conductor
Materials.
3.2.        Explain energy levels and energy bands in solids.
3.3.        Explain the difference between Conductor, Semi Conductor and Insulator on the basis of Energy band structure with illustration.
3.4.       List the properties of Semi Conductors and effect of Temperature on Semi Conductors.
3.5.       Define Doping.
3.6.       Differentiate between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semi Conductors.
3.7.       Describe the formation of N-type and P-type materials.
3.8.       Explain hole Current due to majority carriers and minority carriers.
3.9.       Explain drift current and diffusion current.
3.10.    Compare drift and diffusion currents.

4.0       Understand the properties of PN Diode and Zener Diode.

4.1         Explain the formation of P-N junction and its properties.
4.2         Explain the concept of potential barrier.
4.3         Describe the operation of P-N Junction diode with forward bias and reverse bias.
4.4         Draw the Symbol of a P-N Junction diode and give its specifications.
4.5         Draw the V-I characteristic of a P-N Junction diode and explain each region.
4.6         Estimate the forward/ reverse resistance of the Diode from the characteristic curve.
4.7         State the effect of temperature on the Forward and Reverse Characteristics of a P-N junction diode.
4.8         Give the Symbol of Zener diode and also give its applications.
4.9         Draw the V-I characteristics of Zener diode and explain them.
4.10      Distinguish between Zener breakdown and Avalanche breakdown.

5.0       Describe the working principle of Rectifiers.

5.1         Differentiate between DC power supplies and Battery.
5.2         Define Rectifier. Classify the Rectifiers.
5.3         Explain the working of HWR.
5.4         Derive expressions for Vdc, Idc, Vrms, Irms, efficiency, ripple factor and regulation.
5.5         Define the PIV rating of the Rectifier diode and state its importance.
5.6         Explain the working of FWR using center tapped transformer.
5.7         Derive the expression for Vdc, Idc, Vrms, Irms, efficiency and ripple factor for FWR.
5.8         Explain the working of FW Bridge rectifier.
5.9         Explain the regulation characteristics of FWR.
5.10      Identify the reasons for poor regulation in rectifier circuits.
5.11      Compare the performance parameters of HWR & FWR.
5.12      Explain the need for a filter circuit in rectifiers.
5.13      Explain  C, LC & CLC type filter circuits
5.14      Explain simple Zener Voltage Regulator.
5.15      Draw the block diagram and explain working of regulated power supply.

6.0 Understand Basics of  a Transistor and its characteristics

6.1      Name the terminals of the transistor
6.2     Explain the purpose of emitter, base and collector
6.3     Draw the Symbols of NPN and PNP transistors.
6.4   Explain construction and  working of NPN and PNP transistor.
6.5   Give the specifications of Transistor
6.4   Mention three basic different packaging and encapsulation used for Transistor
6.5   List the configurations of a transistor.
6.6   Identify the Circuits for C.B, C.E and C.C configurations.
6.7   Define Alpha, Beta factors of a transistor. Explain their significance
6.8   Derive the relation between Alpha and Beta
6.9   Explain the input and output characteristics of transistors in CB, CE and CC      mode.
6.10 Derive the expressions for the collector current in CB and CE configurations
in terms of  Ic, Ie   and Icbo and Iceo.
6.11 Compare the characteristics of CB, CE and CC.

7.0    Understand function of Transistor biasing circuits.

7.1      Explain Transistor as an Amplifier
7.3      Explain the Concept of stability of operating point
7.4      Explain the need for transistor biasing.
7.5      List out the different biasing techniques
7.6   Draw the transistor amplifier circuits with fixed bias, collector to base bias, potential
divider bias.
7.7     Explain how biasing is provided in the above circuits.
7.8     Define stability factor
7.9     Explain the compensating methods of bias stability.

8.0     Understand Field Effect Transistors and Special Semiconductor devices.

8.1    Draw symbol of FET name the terminals.
8.2    Explain construction of JFET.
8.3   Describe the working of a JFET.
8.4   Draw the drain characteristics for JFET.
8.5   State the merits and demerits of a FET over BJT.
8.6   Define ‘gm’ factor of a FET.
8.7   Give the applications of FET.
8.8   Describe the working of a MOSFET (Enhancement mode and Depletion mode)
8.10 Explain the working principle of Tunnel diode.
8.11 Sketch the Symbol of Tunnel diode and mention its applications.
8.12 Draw the equivalent CKT of UJT and explain its operation.
8.13 Draw UJT characteristics and explain significance of negative resistance region.
8.14 State the applications of UJT.
8.15 Sketch the symbol of SCR.
8.16 Draw the construction of SCR and explain its operation.
8.17  Draw and explain V-I characteristics of SCR (Forward and Reverse)
8.18  State the applications of SCR.

9.0   Understand analysis of transistor amplifier

9.1  Classify the amplifier on the basis of active device used, configuration, frequency range, function of the circuit(voltage & power), types of coupling, types of load, period of conduction.
9.2     Define h- parameters
9.3     Sketch the h-parameter model for a transistor in CE, CB, and CC configuration.
9.4     Sketch the approximate h-parameter model
9.5     Derive expression for voltage gain, current gain, input impedance and output impedance for CE, CB, and CC configuration by using approximate model.
9.6     Solve simple problems.
9.7     Limitations of h- parameters
9.8     Sketch the hybrid pi-model for transistor at high frequencies.
9.9     Define alpha cut off frequency and Beta cut off frequency.

COURSE CONTENTS

1          Electronic passive Components.
Conductors, Semiconductors, Insulators and dielectric materials. Resistance and Resistivity, ratings of a Resistor, Classification of the Resistors.NTC, PTC, LDR and VDR characteristics, color-coding of Resistors, Capacitor and Capacitance, charging and discharging of a capacitor. Factors affecting capacitance and voltage rating. Classification of capacitors-applications of various  Capacitors, Inductors and Transformers- Self Inductance, mutual Inductance. Application of various transformers.

2          Switches, relays and PCB’s
Switches characteristics and their applications. SPST, SPDT, DPST, DPDT and multi  pole multi throw   Switches, Electromagnetic Relays, Conventional circuits and Printed Circuit Boards-advantages of PCB’s. Steps involved  in  PCB manufacturing processes.

3       Semiconductor Physics.
Atomic structure of semi conductor materials. Energy levels and energy bands in solids. Effect of Temperature on Semi conductors, Doping, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semi conductors. Formation of N-type and P-type semi conducting materials. Drift and Diffusion currents

4          Semiconductor Diodes.
Formation of  P- N  junction and  its properties. concept of  potential barrier, operation  of  P  - N Junction diode with Forward bias and Reverse bias. Effect of temperature on the   Forward    and Reverse Characteristics of  P – N junction diode.  Zener diode V-I characteristics and its applications. Zener breakdown and Avalanche breakdown, Zener Voltage Regulator. LED, LCD, Varactor diodes, Photo diode and solar cell.

4     Rectifiers and power supplies

Semiconductor diode as a rectifier, Half wave, Full wave and Bridge rectifiers.  Definitions of PIV, ripple factor, regulation and rectification efficiency. Type of filter circuits L section and Ï€ section filter, Regulated power supply,  Zener diode voltage regulator.

5          Transistor characteristics.
Constructional details, Operation, Specifications and Applications of Transistors, I/P and O/P characteristics of transistors in C.B, C.E and C.C configurations. Expressions for the collector current. Alpha, Beta factors of a transistor,  Compare CB and CE, CC Configurations.

6          Transistor biasing circuits.
Transistor as an Amplifier,  Load line analysis, Concept of stability of operating point, Need for transistor biasing Amplifier circuits with fixed bias, collector to base bias, potential divider bias Stability factor, Compensating methods.

7         Field Effect Transistors and Special Semiconductor devices.

Working of a JFET and MOSFET (Enhancement mode and Depletion mode) with transfer characteristics.  Working principle of Tunnel diode, UJT, SCR.

8     Analysis of transistor Amplifier

Classification of amplifiers, h-parameter model for CE, CB, CC configuration, approximate h-parameter model, hybrid Ï€-model, alpha cut off frequency and Beta cut off frequency.

REFERENCE BOOKS

1.            Electronic Components and materials by D.V.Prasad.
2.            Fundamentals of Electronic Devices by David A. Bell.
3.            Electronic circuits by Malvino.
4.            Basic Electronics and Linear circuits by N.N. Bhargava, D.C. Kulshreshtha, S.C. Gupta (T.T.T.I)  Chandigarh
5.            Electronic Components and materials by Madhuri A. Joshi.
6.            Integrated Electronics – Milliman & Halkias
7.            Electronic Devices and Circuits  - Milliman & Halkias.
8.            Solid State Electronic Devices – Streetman
9.            Introduction to Basic Elec. Engg. By V.K. Mehta
10.         A Text Book of Electrical Technology,  Vol.I – B.L.Thereja
11.         Basic Electrical Engineering by J.B. Gupta.

ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS & DEVICES LAB

Subject title                  :       ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS & DEVICES LAB
Subject code              :        BM-108
Periods per week       :       3
Periods / Semester    :       90
TIME SCHEDULE
 Sl NO Major Topics Periods 1 Study and use of Electronic equipment 15 2 Testing of Electronic components & characteristics 15 3 Semiconductor Diodes and Rectifiers 15 4 Identification of transistors 06 5 Characteristics of CB configuration 12 6 Characteristics of CE configuration 12 7 Transistor as a switch 06 8 Characteristics of FET 12 9 Characteristics of UJT 06 10 Characteristics of SCR 06 11 Characteristics of LED 06 12 Characteristics of LDR 06 13 Determination of h-parameters 18

List of the Experiments

1.    To study and use of Electronic equipment

a.    Voltmeter, Ammeter, DMM, Analog Multi meter and Regulated Power Supply.
b.    Measurement of DC Voltage and DC current.

2.    Testing of Electronic components & characteristics

a.    Measurement of Resistance
b.    Measurement of capacitance
c.    Measurement of inductance
d.    Test the given transformer

3.    Soldering practice and Desoldering practice

4.     To draw the  forward  and  reverse characteristics of  Silicon diode
a) Determine Knee voltage,  b) identify  Cutoff, and Linear regions
c)  Connect a 6V lamp in series with diode and test it on DC power supply
d ) Using the CRO  & Curve tracer to observe the Characteristics.
e) Heat the diode with a soldering Iron and observe the effect on reverse current

5.  . To draw the  forward  & reverse characteristics of  Zener  diode  and determine Breakdown Voltage.

Connect resistance ladder circuit (3 resistors) and measure the voltages at the output by varying input voltage while Zener is reverse biased.

6.     To implement Rectifier circuits using Diodes and observe the effect of Filtering

a) Implementing Half wave rectifier with and without filter
b) Implementing Full wave rectifier with and without filter
c) Implementing Bridge rectifier with and without filter
d) Implementing Voltage Doubler circuit
e) Connect a diode IN4007 in series with a 230V, 60W   Lamp and test it. (Record your observations)

7.    Identify the transistor and its leads, test(PNP/NPN)transistor with Multimeter
8.    Obtain the input and output characteristics of CB configuration and Calculate
the dynamic  resistance and current gain of NPN / PNP transistors
9.    Obtain the input and output characteristics of CE configuration and Calculate
the dynamic  resistance and current gain of NPN / PNP transistors
10 Transistor as a switch
11 Identification of leads of FET & Obtain the FET drain characteristics and calculate
the drain  resistance, and the trans-conductance
12  Identify UJT leads& Obtain UJT characteristics and calculate intrinsic stand off ratio.
13. Obtain the SCR Characteristics.
14. Obtain the LED Characteristics.
15. Obtain the LDR Characteristics.
16. Calculate the transistor h-parameters for CB, CE Configuration

 Exp No Name of the Experiment Objectives Key competencies 1 Identifying and drawing Electronic circuit Symbols Identification of meters and equipment 1. DMM, 2. Analog Multimeter, 3.DC Voltmeters/Ammeters 4. DC Power supply 5. DRB 6. DCB  7. DIB 8. CRO 9.Function Generator etc To know the symbols used in  Electronic Circuits Identifying the  meters and equipment Know their purpose To know the symbols used in  Electronic Circuits Identifying the  meters and equipment 2 Working with Multimeter a) Measuring the resistance using multimeter b)Testing the wire continuity with multimeter c) Measurement of Battery Voltage using Voltmeter and Multimeter Identifying analog and Digital multimeters Selecting the correct Range Measuring Voltage , Current and Resistance with Multimeter Use the Multimeter 3 Connecting batteries in series and parallel and observing the output voltage using DMM To practice of DMM To practice Series and Parallel connection of Cells Observe the polarity To observe the effect on Terminal Voltage Make series and parallel connection of batteries Use DMM to measure Voltage 4 Working with Resistors Identify different types of resistors Resistors colour code Connecting resistors in series and parallel and measuring the resistance using multimeter Rheostat connections Identify different types of resistors Find the value of Resistance from colour code  of CFR ang MFR types Identifying the terminals on Rheostat setting the Rheostat to Minimum and maximum positions Observing Resistance change using DMM Identifying resistance type by observation Finding  the value of Resistance from colour code  of CFR ang MFR types Setting the Rheostat to Minimum and maximum positions 5 Measurement of  DC Voltage and DC current Connecting Voltmeter and Ammeter to measure DC Voltage and Current using Voltmeter and Ammeter measure DC Voltage and Current using Voltmeter and Ammeter 6 Verification of Ohm’s Law To verify Ohm’s law and establish relation between Voltage , Current and Resistance Perform experiment as per procedure and draw inference 7 Measurement of Resistance using Voltmeter and DRB Learn to use the  DRB Applying Ohm.s law in practical situations Measure the Resistance using Voltmeter and DRB 8 To Verify the laws of Resistance using a Nichrome wire and Multimeter To understand the laws of Resistance by experimental verification. Reinforce the skills of using Multimeter. Use the multimeter to measure Resistance 9 Verify the effect of temperature on Resistance Using electric Lamp and Multimeter, Voltmeter and Ammeter Observing the difference between Cold Resistance and Hot Resistance Measuring voltage current and resistance 10 Investigate voltage and current relationship in series and parallel resistive circuits Observing branch  currents in  Series and Parallel circuits Verifying current division in parallel circuits with calculated values Measuring voltages and currents and drawing inferences 11 Experimenting with  transformer a)Identify the transformer type based on tappings i. Center tapped, ii. Multi tapped  iii. Normal b) Test the given transformer using a multicenter, identify the windings. c) Find the Transformation ratio d) Demonstrate that transformer can step up or step down the voltage a)Identify the transformer type based on its  toppings i. Center tapped ii. Multi tapped, iii. Normal b) Test the given transformer using a multimeter identify the windings c) Find the Transformation ratio d) Demonstrate that transformer can step up or step down the voltage. Identifying the type of transformer Testing the transformer 12 Identify different types of capacitors. a) Find the value/specifications  of capacitor from Value printed ,and from  Color code Identify  different types of capacitors by their name,  Know the specifications and ratings.  Find the value of capacitor from the colour code. 13 Demonstrate that capacitor can hold charge ,charging and discharging require a specific time using an LED a) Investigate the effect of connecting capacitors in series and parallel b) Testing the capacitor Using multimeter,  AC source (Transformer / Function generator) and headphones Learn the behavior of capacitor by experimentation Connecting Capacitors in series and parallel and observing the effect on total capacitance. Testing the capacitor using multimeter  and other methods Understand the behavior of capacitors Testing the capacitors 14 Identifying different  switches a) Identify different types of switches and their symbols b) Toggle switches, Rotary switches, Push button switches and DIP switches. c) Controlling a small Tape -recorder motor with a DPDT switch to run in Forward and reverse Directions. Identifying different types of switches by observation, By name and symbol Using DPDT switch to reverse the Direction, Tape recorder motor Observing the constructional details and ratings of tape recorder motor Identify the type of switch and its name Use DPDT switch 15 Testing the relay a) Use of NO and NC Contacts b) Using the relay to control a        Lamp load. c) Using the double pole relay     to control a fan motor. d) Making a simple relay motor     control using double pole    relay and push button switches Know the constructional details of Relay Testing/identifying  the coil  connections with Multimeter Understand the purpose of Relay experimentally Use the relay in practical circuits. Testing   and using  the relay 16 . Soldering practice a. Making wire tips b. joining wires c. joining components d. populating simple circuits like, Audio amplifier  on a breadboard. e. testing the soldered connections using multimeter Know the metals which can be soldered Know the solder specifications Know the use of Flux in soldering Practice the soldering, Practicing soldering and disordering, Populating PCBs 17 Practice Desoldering using Desoldering Wick and Desoldering Pump Practice desoldering  using Desoldering wick and Desoldering Pump 18 To draw the  forward  & reverse characteristics of  Silicon diode  a) determine Knee voltage,  b) identify  Cutoff , and Linear regions ii)  a)  Connect a  6V lamp in series with diode and test it on DC power supply  b ) Using the CRO  & Curve tracer to observe the Characteristics.  c) Heat the diode with a soldering Iron and observe the effect on reverse current 1.Identification of meters and equipment 2.Using  DRB, DIB, DCB and measuring Voltage and current 3.Interpreting  diode datasheets and finding the specifications of components used in the experiment 1. assembling the circuit as per the circuit diagram 2. Identification of Diode terminals by observation and also with DMM     & Analogue Multimeter 3.  Drawing inference and writing the report 19 a)To draw the  forward  & reverse characteristics of  Zener  diode  and determine Breakdown Voltage b) Connect resistance ladder circuit(3 resistors) and measure the voltages at the output by varying input voltage while Zener is reverse biased 1.Identification of meters and equipment  2.Using DRB, DIB  ,DCB and measuring Voltage and current 3.Interpreting  Zener diode datasheets and finding the specifications of components used in the experiment 1. Assembling the circuit as per the circuit diagram 2. Identification of Zener Diode terminals by observation and with DMM &Analogue Multimeter 3.Drawing inference and writing the report 20 To implement Rectifier circuits using Diodes and observe the effect of Filtering a) Implementing Half wave rectifier with and without filter b) Implementing Full wave rectifier with and without filter c) Implementing Bridge rectifier with and without filter d) Implementing Voltage Doubler circuit e) Connect a diode IN4007  in series with a  60W  230V Lamp  and test it .(Record  your observations) 1. Drawing the symbols of Transformer, Diode, Inductor and Capacitor 2.Reading the circuit diagram 3.Identification of Diode terminals 4. Identification of meters and equipment  5.Using DRB, DIB  ,DCB and measuring Voltage and current. 6. Observing the polarity of capacitors. 7 Interpreting  diode datasheets and finding the specifications of components used in the experiment 1. Assembling the circuit as per the circuit diagram  2. Using the CRO, observe the waveforms 3. Assess the Power supply performance in terms of ripple and % Regulation 4. Drawing inference and writing the report 21 Familiarization of Transistor 1. Identify Transistor –different types. 2.Identify the leads 3. Drawing the symbols of Transistors 4. Finding the transistor type by using multimeter (PNP or NPN). 5. Identify the specifications through datasheets. 5. Know the package and differences between BC148A, 148B, 148C and BF194 from the data sheets. 1.  Identifying Transistor Terminals  and Type 2.Reading Data sheets 22 Transistor Characteristics in CB Configuration 1. Identify Transistor and Test the Transistor terminals with multi meter 2.Connect the CB  configuration circuit 3. observe emitter current IE and  emitter to base voltage VEB  by varying input bias 4. Draw the input characteristics-keeping VCB constant for different values. 5. Calculate the dynamic     resistance by graph = ∆ VEB/∆IE. 6. Note IC by varying VCB (should not cross max. 20V). 7 Draw the output characteristics-keeping IE constant for different values. 8.Calculate  the output dynamic resistance=∆VCb/∆IC 9.calculate Î±= IC/IE., 10. Draw dc load line. 1. Draw the input and output characteristics of CB Configuration 2. Calculate the input and output dynamic     resistance 3. Calculate Î±= IC/IE. 23 Transistor Characteristics in CE Configuration 1. Identify Transistor and Test the Transistor terminals with multimeter  2. Connect the CE  configuration circuit 3. Observe base current IB and  base to emitter voltage VBE by varying input bias 4. Draw the input characteristics-keeping VCE constant for different values. 5. Find the dynamic     resistance by graph rd = ∆ VBE/∆IB. 6. Note IC and VCE by varying output bias (should not cross max. 20V). 7. Draw the output characteristics-keeping IB constant for different values. 8. Calculate  the output dynamic resistance=∆VCE/∆IC 9. Calculate Î²= IC/IB. 10. Draw dc load line. 1. Draw the input and output characteristics of CE Configuration 2. Calculate the input and output dynamic     resistance 3.Calculate Î²= IC/IB. 24 Turn on and turn off a relay using Transistor (BC148 as a switch.) . 1.Identification of Transistor  terminals by observation 2.Test the Transistor terminals with multimeter and DMM. 3. Identifications of meters and equipment 4.Measure the collector and base currents when transistor in saturation and cutoff regions  5. Connect a 6v lamp in series with BD139 and observe the effect of base current  variation on  lamp brightness 1. Measure the Collector and Base currents when transistor in saturation and cutoff regions 2. Observe the switch action of transistor 25 Draw  the input and output characteristics of JFET. b) Show that a FET can be used as a constant current source with appropriate bias 1. Drawing the symbols of FET,  2. Draw the circuit Diagram. 3. Identification of FET terminals 4. Identification of meters and equipment  5.Observe drain current ID and  source to drain voltage VDS by varying bias 3. Draw the drain characteristics by keeping VGS constant for different values.( VDS,,Id) 4.  Measure pinch off voltage and transconductance. 5. Apply -2 volts to the gate circuit through resistors of value 10k, 100k and 1M separately and measure the output current and analyse.  4. Study MMBFJ175L(P channel FET) data sheet 1. Assembling the circuit as per the circuit diagram                             2.Identifying the ground, drain, gate and source terminals using multimeter (DMM and Analogue) also by physical observation 3. Observing the pinch off voltage accurately 4. Calculate trans conductance 26 To plot the characteristics of UJT and determine the intrinsic standoff ratio 1. Identify UJT and its package 2. Interpret specifications from datasheets 3. identify the terminals  by observation  and  by multi meter  4. Observe base current IB and  base to emitter voltage VBE by varying VBB 5. draw the characteristics of UJT 6. Calculate intrinsic standoff ratio of UJT 1. Plot the characteristics and interpret the graph of UJT. 2. Determine intrinsic standoff ratio of UJT 27 To plot the characteristics of SCR 1.Identify SCR and its package 2. Identify the terminals  by observation    and by testing with Multimeter 3. Connect the cir circuit and keep zero gate triggering current. 4. observe diode current and voltage across SCR  5. Plot the characteristics of SCR for different gate triggering currents. 6. measure the break down voltages 1. Plot the characteristics and interpret the graph.  2. Determine Holding current and Triggering current. 3. measure the break down voltages 28 To plot the characteristics of  LED 1.Identifying  the device and terminals 2. Draw the symbols. 3. Connect  the circuit. 4. Observe and note down the diode current and voltage across the diode by varying bias voltage 5.Measure the cut in voltage 6.Plot the characteristics of  LED. 7. Repeat the above steps for different color LEDs 1. Draw the characteristics of  LED 2. Measure the cut in voltage 3. Compare characteristics of  LED’s different colors. 29 To plot the characteristics of  LDR 1.Identifying  the device and terminals 2. Draw the symbols. 3. Connect the circuit. 4. Observe and note down the current and voltage across the LDR by varying the illumination of light 5. Plot the characteristics of LDR. 1. Draw the characteristics of  LDR 30 h-parameters CB,CE Configuration 1. Connect the transistor in CB configuration. 2. Keep the output short circuited,Measure input current, input voltage and output current. 3. Keep the input open circuited measure input current, output voltage and output current. 4. Calculate h-parameters. 5. Repeat above steps for CE Configuration 1. Measure input current, input voltage, output voltage and output current for output short circuited and input open circuited 2. Calculate h-parameters

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