# C - 14 CURRICULUM FOR DECE

## Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Subject Title                     :           Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Subject Code                 :           EC-105
Periods/Week             :           04
Periods/Year              :           120

# TIME SCHEDULE

 Sl. No Major Topics No. of  periods Weightage of marks Short Answer Questions Essay Questions 1 Basic Electricity Work power and energy 24 13 1 1 2 Magnetism 10 8 1 1/2 3 Electrostatics & Capacitance 16 13 1 1 4 Chemical effects of electric current & Batteries 6 8 1 1/2 5 AC Fundamentals 10 13 1 1 6 Passive components 18 13 1 1 7 Switches and Relays 10 13 1 1 8 PCBs 8 8 1 1/2 9 Semiconductor Diode 6 8 1 1/2 10 Power supplies 12 13 1 1 Total 120 110 10 8

OBJECTIVES
On completion of the course the student should be able to
1.0 Comprehend the basic Principles of Electricity
1.1          Explain the concept of Electric current, Potential difference, Voltage and emf.
1.2          Explain the concept of a circuit
1.3          State  Ohm’s Law
1.4          Give the concept of Resistance to flow of electrons,
1.5          Define the terms specific resistance and conductivity.
1.6          Deduce the relation R =( rl ) / a
1.7          Solve simple problems using  the above formula.
1.8          Explain the effects of temperature on resistance
1.9          Define temperature co- efficient of resistance.
1.10      Derive  the formula Rt = Ro (1+µot)   to find  resistance at any given temperature
1.11      Solve Simple problems using the above formula.
1.12      Explain series and parallel connections of Resistances
1.13      Derive the expressions for equivalent resistance for series and parallel connections.
1.14      Solve  simple problems on series and parallel circuits
1.15      Explain the  division of current in parallel circuits
1.16      Solve simple problems on the above.
1.19      List  the 4 effects of Electric current
1.20      Explain the Heating effect of Electric current
1.21      Define Electric Power
1.22      Give the formula for power and mention Units (Watts , kilo Watts , Mega watts)
1.23      Define Electrical energy and mention the units (watt hours, kilo watt hours , Megawatt hours)
1.24      Mention the typical power ratings of home appliances like Electrical lamps                           ( Incandescent , Florescent , CFL &LED) Water Heater , electric Iron, Fans,  Refrigerators ,  Air coolers , Television set and computer.
1.25      Calculate total Electrical energy consumption and cost   given the wattage , hours  of operation and Electricity tariff
1.26      Mention the merits of CFL and LED lamps over Incandescent lamps from power consumption point of view
1.27      Derive expression for conversion of Electrical energy into equivalent heat energy in kilo Calories      (joules Law)
1.28      Define thermal efficiency
1.29      Solve problems on Electrical heating
1.30      Mention the practical applications of Electric heating like,    Water heater, Electric Iron etc.
2.0  Understand  the magnetic effects of Electric Current
2.1          State coulombs laws of magnetism.
2.2          Define the terms Absolute and relative permeability of medium.
2.3          Explain the concept of lines of force & magnetic Field.
2.4          Define field intensity, Magnetic potential, Flux, Flux density .
2.5          Give the relation between Absolute and relative permeability
2.6          Draw  and explain  the field patterns due to
a.    Straight current carrying conductor
b.    Solenoid and
c.    Toroidal
2.7       Explain Work law and its applications
2.8       State Laplace law (Biot-Savart’s Law)
2.9       Give  expressions for field strength,
2.10      Derive the expression for magnitude of the force   on a conductor in a magnetic field
2.11      Give  the expression for the force between two parallel current carrying conductors
2.12      Explain  the nature of the force with different directions of the currents
2.13      Define ampere
2.14      Explain the concept of the Magnetic circuit
2.15      Define magneto motive  force (mmf), permeability, flux and Reluctance
2.16      Solve problems on simple magnetic circuits
2.17      Compare magnetic circuit with electric circuit.
2.18      Explain the effect of air gap in a magnetic circuit
2.19      Explain the terms leakage flux and  leakage co-efficient
2.20      Give the equation for the energy stored per unit volume in a magnetic field.
2.21      Calculate energy stored per unit volume
2.22      Give the expression for lifting power of a magnet.

3.0 Understand Electric Charge and Electrostatic Field
3.1          State Coulomb’s law of electrostatics and define unit charge
3.2          Define absolute and relative permittivity.
3.3          Solve simple  problems based on Coulomb’s law
3.4          Explain electrostatic field.
3.5          Compare electrostatic and magnetic fields
3.6          Define  field intensity
3.7          State Gauss theorem
3.8           Explain the concept of electric potential and potential difference
3.9           Define  di-electric strength and di-electric constant
3.10      Give the Permittivity of commonly used die- electric materials
3.11      Define the term capacitance.
3.12      Draw the symbol of capacitor
3.13      State unit of capacitance
3.14      Derive the formula for  capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor
3.15      Explain equivalent capacitance of
A.             Capacitors connected in series;
B.             Capacitors connected in parallel
3.16      Explain charging and discharging of capacitor.
3.17      Give the  expression for energy stored in a capacitor
3.18      Solve simple  problems related to capacitors

4.0 Chemical effects of Current and Batteries
4.1          Explain Faradays laws of Electrolysis
4.2          Explain Polarisation or Back emf
4.3          Explain how the value of Back emf can be determined
4.4          Define Primary and Secondary Cells.
4.5          Explain series and parallel connections of cells to form Battery
4.6          Give the formulae for output voltage and current when connected in  1. Series  and 2. Parallel
4.7          Explain when it is preferred to have 1.  Series connection 2. Parallel connection of the batteries
4.8          Explain the constructional details of a Lead acid Battery
4.9          List the active materials used in the construction of lead acid Battery
4.10      Explain the chemical reactions that take place during  Charging and discharging
4.11      Explain the significance of internal resistance of a Battery
4.12      Define the Ampere Hour and Watt Hour Efficiencies of the cell.
4.13      Draw the Electrical characteristics of Lead acid cell and explain.
4.14      Explain the condition of a Fully charged cell.
4.15      List the  six important applications  of Lead acid batteries
4.16      Explain constant current and Constant Voltage methods of Charging Lead acid batteries.
4.17      Solve simple problems to find charging current requirements
4.18      Explain the need for Trickle charging
4.19      Explain the sulphation and its prevention
4.20      List the precautions to be observed to maintain the lead acid batteries.
4.21      Explain the Constructional details of lithium ion Batteries
4.22      List any 4 merits and demerits of Lithium Ion Batteries
4.23      List all  the precautions to be taken when charging and discharging of lithium ion batteries
4.24      List other types of Batteries used in Electronic Industry namely A. Zinc – Carbon  B. Alkaline C.9V Battery D. Button cells (both Lithium and Silver oxide types)
4.25      Mention the output voltages of above cells
4.26      Mention the Common and IEC standard codes to specify the size of the cell
4.27      Mention any 3  applications of the above
4.28      Compare Primary and Secondary cells.

5.0  Understand the concept of Alternating current
5.1        Explain the generation of Alternating current with simple loop generator concept.
5.2        Draw the sine wave and explain the concept of a cycle
5.3        Define  Time period , Frequency  and Amplitude of a sine wave
5.4        Give the formula for the instantaneous value in terms of maximum value, frequency and time.
5.5        Write different forms of emf equation
5.6        Solve simple problems to calculate Amplitude ,frequency and Time Period
5.7        Define the average value, R.M.S. value, form factor and peak factor for sine wave.
5.8        Explain the terms phase and phase difference.
5.9        Explain the concept of Leading , lagging and inphase with the help of waveforms
5.10     Explain vector representation of Alternating quantities
5.11     Draw the vector diagrams of sine waves of same frequency.
5.12     Perform addition and subtraction of alternating quantities using vector method.
5.13     Solve problems to find resultant vector of several alternating quantities.
5.14     Explain the effect of AC flowing through Pure Resistance , Inductance and Capacitance with vector diagrams.
5.15     Define the terms Inductive reactance, Impedance, admittance, conductance and Power Factor
5.16     Explain Active and Reactive components of AC current
5.17     Explain Active and Reactive and apparent power in AC circuit.
5.18     Explain the importance of power factor
5.19     Define Q factor of a coil.
5.20     Explain power in an iron cored choking coil.
5.21     Explain AC through Resistance and capacitance connected in series.
5.22     Solve simple problems on RC series circuits
5.23     Calculate the impedance, power, current, phase angle and power factor in   RL,RC and RLC series circuits.

6.0 Understand passive components
6.1        Classify types of resistors.
6.2        List the specifications of a resistor, and state their importance.
6.3        Explain the necessity of preferred values in resistor.
6.4        Explain the features of following Resistors.
a.            Carbon Film Resistors
b.            Metal film Resistors
c.            Metal oxide Resistors.
d.            Precision Resistors
6.5        List the applications of the above Resistors
6.6        Identify Resistance Value by using Colour Code.(4band and 5 band)
6.7        List the common faults in resistors.
6.8        Classify wire wound Resistors
6.9        Explain the constructional details of wire wound resistors.
6.10     List any 4 applications of Wire wound Resistor Including Fan Regulator
6.11     List the two  types of Variable resistors (Potentiometer and Preset)
6.12     Distinguish between Preset and Potentiometer
6.13     Draw the European and US standard symbols of Potentiometers and Presets
6.14     Describe constructional details of carbon and wire wound potentiometers.
6.15     Compare the features of carbon and wire wound potentiometers
6.16     List different types of Presets and Trimmers
6.17     Mention any 3 applications of  precision  multi turn Cermet trimmer
6.18     Mention the need for tapering in potentiometers.
6.19     Define Linear and Logarithmic Potentiometers
6.20     Explain the use of Logarithmic potentiometer in Audio amplifier  for Volume control
6.21     Explain the construction and working of rheostat
6.22     Explain the use of Rheostat as 1. Variable Resistance. 2. Potentiometer
6.23     List the 4 types of special Resistors (Thermistor , Sensistor, LDR and VDR)
6.24     Explain P.T.C. and N.T.C. of Resistors.
6.25     Explain  the working of thermistor and sensistor
6.26     Give standard specifications for the above
6.27     List any 3 applications. of above
6.28     Give Constructional details of LDR (Light Dependant Resistor)
6.29     List 3 important specifications of LDR
6.30     List any 3 applications of  LDR
6.31     Explain the use of VDR
6.32     Explain resistor packs  and SMD Resistors

Familiarise with different types of inductors used in electronic circuits and their applications

6.33       Classify inductors.
6.34       Draw the symbol of  different types of inductors
6.35       List the specifications of inductors.
6.36       List and Explain the important parameters  of Air cored inductors
6.37       Explain the terms Stray inductance and stray capacitance
6.38       List various core materials used in the construction of inductors
6.39       Describe the constructional  features
6.40       List the applications of A.F. and R.F chokes.
6.41       List the common faults in inductors
6.42       Explain the use of Ferrites in the construction of  high frequency inductors

Familiarise with different types of capacitors used in electronic circuits and their applications
6.43       Classify the different types of capacitors.
6.44       List the specifications of a capacitor and state their importance.
6.45       Explain different markings on the  a) Electrolytic capacitors b) Ceramic and Plastic capacitors (Value , Polarization, Voltage, Tolerance , temperature rating)
6.46       Explain working voltage of a capacitor
6.47       Reading the capacitor value and tolerance by 1. Using colour code. 2.Value printed
6.48       State the factors affecting the capacitance of a   capacitor.
6.49       Mention  the properties, range of values and applications of
1. Paper  2. mica, 3. glass, 4. polyester 5. Polystyrene 6. ceramic 7. Electrolytic  capacitors.
6.50       Explain the importance of polarity in Electrolytic capacitors
6.51       Explain the use of capacitors for coupling AC signal and blocking DC
6.52       Explain self healing in metalized capacitors
6.53       List different types of variable capacitors and mention their applications.
6.54       Explain the use  of ganged capacitor in AM radio for tuning
6.55       Explain the use of trimmer capacitors
6.56       Mention the losses in capacitors.
6.57       List 3 common faults in capacitors.

7.0 Familiarise with different types of switches, Connectors and Relays.
7.1             Explain the working of a switch.
7.2             Classify switches according to poles and throws  (SPST, SPDT, DPST, DPDT, Multi-pole multi-throw)
7.3             Explain the working of toggle, push button, rotary, slider, keyboard, and thumb wheel switches with a mention to their ratings and applications.
7.4             Draw the I.S.I symbols of various switches.
7.5             Explain the need of fuse in electronic equipment.
7.6             Mention different types of fuses.
7.7             List 3 metals used for fuses
7.8             Mention significance of fuse ratings.
7.9             Explain the need for connectors in electronic circuits.
7.10         List different types of connectors.
7.11         Mention the use of MCB.
7.12         Define an Electromagnetic relay.
7.13         Draw the symbol of a relay
7.14         Classify different relays based on principle of operation, polarization and application.
7.15         Mention specifications of relays.
7.16         Explain the construction & working of general-purpose electromagnetic relay.
7.17         Explain the purpose of NC and NO contacts
7.18         Explain arcing during changeover
7.19         List the contact materials used in relays and list their characteristics.
7.20         Explain the use of solenoid
7.21         Explain the need for fly back diode across the relay coil  when used in electronic circuits
7.22         Distinguish between relay and contactor

8.0   Comprehend PCB materials and their fabrication
8.1             Explain the need of PCB in electronic equipment.
8.2             Classify PCBs.
8.3             List types of laminates used in PCBs.
8.4             Mention the methods of layout preparation of PCB.
8.5             List the methods of transferring layout on the copper clad sheet.
8.6             List the steps involved in screen-printing for making PCBs.
8.7             List the materials used in screen-printing.
8.8             Describe the photo processing techniques for PCB preparation.
8.9             Mention the methods of etching, cleaning and drilling of PCB.
8.10         Describe the steps involved in making double-sided PCB.
8.11         Give  the standard specification for PCB
8.12         Explain the need for multilayer PCBs
8.13         Explain the use of Surface mount Technology (SMT)
8.14         List the materials used in soldering.
8.15         List the soldering methods of PCBs.

9.0    Understand the working of Semiconductor Diodes
9.1       State the electrical properties of solid Semiconductor materials.
9.2       Sketch energy level diagrams for conductors, Semiconductors, Insulators.
9.3       Distinguish between Intrinsic and extrinsic Semiconductors.
9.4       Describe the formation of P type and N type materials and sketch the energy band      diagrams.
9.5       Explain Majority and Minority carriers in P and N Type materials.
9.6       Distinguish between Drift and Diffusion current.
9.7       Explain the formation of PN junction diode.
9.8       Describe the working of PN junction Diode with various biasing voltages.
9.9       Explain  the forward/Reverse Bias Voltage characteristics of diode.
9.10   Interpret the manufacturer specifications of a given diode from data sheet.
9.11   Describe the formation and working of Zener diode.
9.12   Explain  the characteristics of Zener diode.
9.13   Distinguish between Zener breakdown and Avalanche breakdown.

10.0   Understand the working of DC Power Supplies
10.1   Explain the necessity of D.C. power supply for Electronic circuits.
10.2   Describe the working of HW, FW and Bridge section circuits with wave forms
10.3   Give the equations for RMS value, average DC value; ripple factor and efficiency for the above circuits.
10.4   Define Voltage Regulation.
10.5   Explain the need for a filter circuit in power supplies.
10.6   Explain the operation of a rectifier circuit using RC, CRC, CLC filters.
10.7   State the need for a regulated power supply and list its specifications.
10.8   Explain the working of a simple Zener regulated DC Power supply.

COURSE CONTENT
1. Concept of Electric current, Potential difference, Voltage and emf and  circuit-Ohm’s Law -concept of Resistance - specific resistance and conductivity.Problems related to specific resistance – Effect of temperature on resistance-Temperature co- efficient of resistance.-  resistance at any given temperature-Solve Simple problems - Series and parallel connections of Resistances-Formulas for equivalent resistance for series and parallel connections.-Solve  simple problems on series and parallel circuits division of current in parallel circuits-Effects of Electric current
Units of work, power and energy- Heating effect of Electric current – Electrical power - formula for power and Units -Power ratings of home appliances -Electrical energy consumption calculations - merits of CFL and LED lamps -joules Law-Thermal efficiency – solve problems on Electrical heating practical applications of Electric heating like,    Water heater, Electric Iron etc.
2.Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
Coulombs laws of magnetism-Absolute and relative permeability of medium-Explain the concept of lines of force & magnetic Field- Field intensity, Magnetic potential, Flux, Flux density-Relation between Absolute and relative permeability - Field patterns due to Straight current carrying conductor ,Solenoid and  Toroid
Work law and its applications- Laplace law (Biot-Savart’s Law)- expressions for field strength, - magnitude of the force   on a conductor in a magnetic field- force between two parallel current carrying conductors- nature of the force with different directions of the currents
Define ampere - concept of the Magnetic circuit -Define magneto motive  force (mmf), permeability, flux and Reluctance-Solve problems on simple magnetic circuits-Compare magnetic circuit with electric circuit-Effect of air gap in a magnetic circuit- leakage flux and  leakage co-efficient- equation for the energy stored per unit volume in a magnetic field.
expression for lifting power of a magnet.

3.Electrostatics
Coulomb’s law of electrostatics - Unit charge- Absolute and Relative permittivity. Problems based on Coulomb’s law - Electrostatic field.-Compare electrostatic and magnetic fields -  field intensity- Gauss theorem- Concept of electric potential and potential difference  -  di-electric strength and di-electric constant- Permittivity of commonly used die- electric materials  - capacitance- symbol of capacitor- Unit of capacitance- Formula for  capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor- equivalent capacitance of Capacitors connected in series &Capacitors connected in parallel- Charging and discharging of capacitor- Expression for energy stored in a capacitor- Simple  problems related to capacitors.

4.Chemical effects of electric current
Faradays laws of Electrolysis- Polarisation or Back emf- determination  of Back emf - Primary and Secondary Cells- series and parallel connections of cells to form Battery- Explain when it is preferred to have 1.  Series connection 2. Parallel connection of the batteries- Constructional details of a Lead acid Battery- materials used - Chemical reactions that take place during  Charging and discharging -Internal resistance of a Battery- Ampere Hour and Watt Hour Efficiencies of the cell.- Electrical characteristics of Lead acid cell -Condition of a Fully charged cell- Applications  of Lead acid batteries- Constant current and Constant Voltage methods of Charging Lead acid batteries- Charging current requirements- Trickle charging- Sulphation and its prevention- Precautions
Constructional details of lithium ion Batteries- merits and demerits of Lithium Ion Batteries
Precautions to be taken - Batteries used in Electronic Industry namely A. Zinc – Carbon  B. Alkaline C.9V Battery D. Button cells (both Lithium and Silver oxide types)- output voltages of above cells- Common and IEC standard codes - Applications -Compare Primary and Secondary cells.
5. AC Fundamentals :
Generation of Alternating current - Concept of a cycle -Time period , Frequency  and Amplitude of a sine wave- formula for the instantaneous value- different forms of emf equation -average value, R.M.S. value, form factor and peak factor for sine wave- phase and phase difference.
Vector representation of Alternating quantities- addition and subtraction of alternating quantities-Resultant vector of several alternating quantities- Effect of AC flowing through Pure Resistance , Inductance and Capacitance - Inductive reactance, Impedance, admittance, conductance and Power Factor- Active and Reactive components of AC current-Explain Active and Reactive and apparent power in AC circuit- Importance of power factor- Q factor of a coil- Power in an iron cored choking coil.- AC through Resistance and capacitance connected in series-Solve simple problems on RC series circuits-Calculate the impedance, power, current, phase angle and power factor in   RL,RC and RLC series circuits.

6.Passive components
Resistors:Types of resistors- specifications - Preferred values- features of Carbon Film Resistors,Metal film Resistors ,Metal oxide Resistors. Precision Resistors-applications - Using Colour Code.(4band and 5 band) - Common faults in resistors.Wire wound Resistors Types- Constructional details of wire wound resistors. Types of Variable resistors (Potentiometer and Preset) European and US standard symbols -Constructional details of carbon and wire wound potentiometers.- Features of carbon and wire wound potentiometers- Presets and Trimmers-Applications - Need for tapering in potentiometers -Linear and Logarithmic Potentiometers-Rheostat-Uses – Special Resistors (Thermistor , Sensistor, LDR and VDR)- P.T.C. and N.T.C. of Resistors- Specifications - Applications.
Constructional details of LDR (Light Dependant Resistor)- Specifications & Applications of  LDR- VDR- Resistor packs  and SMD Resistors
Inductors: Classify inductors- symbols - Specifications - Important parameters  of Air cored inductors- Stray inductance and Stray capacitance-List various core materials used constructional  features - Applications of A.F. and R.F chokes- Common faults in inductors -Use of Ferrites in the construction of  high frequency inductors
Capacitors: Types of capacitors- specifications - markings on Capacitors - Working voltage of a capacitor-Using colour code. -  Factors affecting the capacitance-properties, range of values and applications of different types of  capacitors-Importance of polarity in Electrolytic capacitors- Use of capacitors for coupling AC signal and blocking DC- Self healing in metalized capacitors- Types of variable capacitors and their applications- Use  of ganged capacitor in AM radio for tuning-Use of trimmer capacitors-Mention the losses in capacitors- Common faults in capacitors.

7. Switches, connectors and Relays:
Switches- Classification and types  -Ratings and applications. I.S.I symbols – Fuse protection-Types of fuses-Metals used for fuses- Fuse ratings- Connectors - Types of connectors-MCB- Electromagnetic relay- Symbol -Classification - Specifications – Constructional details of general-purpose electromagnetic relay- NC and NO contacts- Arcing during changeover-- Contact materials - Use of Solenoid- Fly back diode- Difference between Relay and Contactor

8. PCBs:
Need for PCB –Classification of PCBs.- Types of laminates - Layout preparation of PCB- transferring layout - Screen-printing - materials used - photo processing techniques – etching methods- cleaning and drilling - steps involved in making double-sided PCB-- standard specification for PCB-Explain the need for multilayer PCBs- Surface mount Technology (SMT) -Materials used in soldering- soldering methods
9. Semiconductor diodes:
Electrical properties of semiconductor materials, energy level diagrams of conductor, semi conductor and Insulator. Formation of P-Type and N-Type materials and their properties. Drift and diffusion current. Formation and behaviour of PN junction diode.-Forward and Reverse bias- characteristics-Specifications- Zener diode- Characteristics-zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown
10. DC Power supplies
Need of DC power supply- Half wave, Full wave and Bridge rectifiers. RMS value, Ripple factor, Voltage regulation. Filters – RC, CRC, and CLC. Zener regulator – series and shunt. IC regulators and specifications of RPS
RECOMMENDED BOOKS
1.    A Textbook of Electrical Technology
Basic Electrical Engineering  (Volume1)        by BL Theraja &AK Theraja
Chand Publications
2.    Basic Electrical Engineering Volume 1          by  PS Dhogal , TMH
3.    Electronic devices and applications               by  B. Somanathan Nair, PHI.
4.  Understanding Electronics Components         by  Filipovic D. Miomir. Mikroe online
Edition

REFERENCE BOOKS
1.    Electronic Devices      and Circuits                 by        David A.Bell            Prentice hall
2.    Hand book of components for Electronics     by        Charles A. Harper  McGrahills
3.    Printed circuit Boards  Design &Technology  by        Walter C. Boshart  TMH

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